Virus-driven mutation or amino acid substitution
“My first thought was, ‘Who could I tell without appearing immodest?’” he said. “I then realized the only people who would want to hear about this are my children!”
My comment: Oxytocin-related peptides are 9-13 amino acids long, but they can be recognized in genomic sequences. That allows them to be placed into the context of claims that link the nutrient energy-dependent de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors to the development of brain-based behavior via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions is the link from biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry in yeasts to all cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all living genera via the decapaptide, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which is 10 amino acids long. A single amino acid substitution links achiral glycine in position 6 to all morphological and behaviorial diversity via what is known about energy-dependent ligand-receptor interactions. The interactions link quantized energy from the sun to the anti-entropic virucidal effects of ultraviolet light, which facilitates RNA-mediated DNA repair.
The obvious links from the energy-dependent creation of the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft, were placed into the context of the evolution of prairie vole monogamy and human heterosexual love by Larry Young in VIRUS EVOLUTION ( AMAZING DOCUMENTARY). Young is not on the list of the most influential brain scientists of the modern era, but perhaps he should be considered.
Watch him link virus-driven energy theft to bonding and love in the context of more pseudoscientific nonsense than you may ever see again. Then, examine what is known to serious scientists about energy-dependent autophagy. Wait to see who will be next to link energy-dependent autophagy from cell type differentiation to all biodiversity by what is known about the differences between C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.
For comparison, see: Polycombic ecological adaptation as a science, not a theory (2)
My comment: Polycombic ecological adaptation appears to link energy-dependent epigenetic effects on hormones (i.e., proteins) to chromatin structure in telomeric regions, which links the effect on transcription and silencing of various genes to hormone-organized and hormone-activated affects on behavior. The hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors link the epigenetic landscape of yeasts to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA in species from bacteria to invertebrates and all vertebrates via the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors, which link chemotaxis and phototaxis to all biodiversity.
The most influential brain scientists appear to have missed what is known about the energy-dependent links from chemotaxis and phototaxis to all biodiversity. That fact was put into the context of this claim by Jaak Panksepp:
My feeling is that the social brain has many levels. If you don’t understand the foundational level, then you can do brain imaging until you’re blue in the face, but you still will not understand the process at a deep causal level.
While the presence of the peptide’s gene in the genome does not necessarily mean that a cyclized, mature peptide with functional receptors is made by the organism, peptide sequence homology serves as the best available proxy for determining which lineages have the oxytocin neuromodulatory system, defined as a functional, mature peptide with one or more functional receptors.
See for comparison: Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor
The discovery of the fact that one decapeptide molecule, among the GnRHs, was constructed perfectly at the beginning of 400 million years evolution and that it is not possible to improve its physiological potency using the any natural amino acid is, in my opinion, important, fascinating and beautiful.
The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
My comment: The failure of the most influential brain scientists of the modern era to link nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to sex differences in cell types and all other differences in the cell types of all individuals of all species exemplifies the disastrous failure of the neo-Darwinian “Modern Synthesis.” It was invented before anyone knew about the role that nutritional epigenetics must play in healthy longevity and before anyone knew the role that virus-driven energy theft plays in all pathology.
Pseudoscientists invented a theory based on de Vries definition of mutation, and more theories were added in the absence of experimental evidence that could link top-down causation to cell type differentiation in all genera. Instead of energy-dependent cell type differentiation, we got this:
For comparison, see: Mutation-Driven Evolution
Mutation… includes nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion, segmental gene duplication, genomic duplication, changes in gene regulatory systems, transposition of genes, horizontal gene transfer, etc.
My comment: The definition above links mutations to any change in any genome.
Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [insertions/deletions] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects [mutations] in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.
My comment: The facts about nutrient energy-dependent amino acid substitutions link hemoglobin variants from ecological adaptation to healthy longevity and the facts also link molecular defects from mutations to the pathology of α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively. It would be difficult to include facts about biophysically constrained energy dependent cell type differentiation in the context of any other model that links amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity and links mutations to all pathology in all living genera.
Unfortunately, some medical laboratory scientists are still not getting the message about the difference between a mutation and fixation of an amino acid substitution.
There is much more to be done before this type of work can used to treat people, including making sure that this type of genome editing isn’t introducing unintended effects. However, this is the next step toward an actual cure for the disease, which is very rare in medicine.
My comment: This reporter does much more than most who continue to misinform other medical professionals. She fails to recognize the fact that serious scientists have been complaining about the potential pitfalls of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome technique. It is being phased out of the potential treatment regimen because researchers have realized they first need to understand how RNA-mediated cell type differentiation is biophysically constrained before causes the constraints to potentially be broken by a virus that quickly adapts and causes the death of millions in the context of a “science fiction becomes fact” scenario / movie script.
HbVar: A Database of Human Hemoglobin Variants and Thalassemias
My comment: All variants are energy-dependent ecological adaptations that require fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA via the physiology of reproduction, which links the supercoiled DNA to protection from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy in all genera. Only biologically uninformed theorists fail to learn the difference between mutations and amino acid substitutions.
See also: Journal of Neuroscience Research An Issue Whose Time Has Come: Sex/Gender Influences on Nervous System Function
See for comparison: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
The general sense of the word “environment” as something exterior to the person is retained, even if that something influences intraperson processes. In addition, we focus directly on molecular events themselves. Here the “environment” involved can be that within a DNA segment. We also expand the notion of “biologically based sex differences.”
Tweeted to John Hewitt: Our works intersect again https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27814653 and https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23886 Life is good in the absence of theories!
Addendum: Energy-dependent biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to supercoiled DNA via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from marine microbes to humans.